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Refrigerant R744 – carbon dioxide
It’s a natural refrigerant that has been used for more than 100 years. As one of the few natural refrigerants, it allows it to be used in many industries, and recently products such as heat pumps have been using it. However, the high design and technical requirements of system components related to high pressure have caused it to be replaced by other refrigerants – including synthetic ones.
The first breakthrough took place in the 1990s, when the harmful effects of CFCs (freons) were discovered (they contributed significantly to the ozone hole). Commercially available refrigerants began to be phased out of their use. Another breakthrough came in February 2005, when the Kyoto Protocol came into force. This was an international agreement to prevent global warming. Gradually, CFC-based refrigerants, which were harmful to the environment and contributed to the greenhouse effect, began to be phased out.
Nowadays, there is a strong focus on ecology and environmental protection, so standards for ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) indicators are strictly observed. An example of such action is the substitution with replacements of synthetic refrigerant R507, whose GWP index is 3985. In comparison, the value of the GWP index for carbon dioxide (R744) is 1. Such action contributes to environmental protection.
Operation in specific pressure classes
R744 refrigerant has a high discharge pressure level, so it’s used in refrigeration for low and medium temperatures. Due to high pressures in the refrigeration system, which can exceed the critical pressure value, it’s necessary to take into account during the design process that the product has a strength equal to the pressure of up to 90 bar. In practice, CO2 refrigerant is used where products have a cascade system applied. CO2 is excellent for cascade system because, together with another refrigerant characterized by operation at a different pressure, they form together a complementary set.
In installations where CO2 is involved, which is related to high operating pressure, sensors are used to increase safety and alarm personnel in case of leaks or failures.
CO2 evaporators – application
R744 refrigerant finds applications in many sectors. Industrial refrigeration, refrigeration in the food industry and refrigeration in transport are areas where we find many applications for CO2. R744 refrigerant can also be used for equipment such as heat pumps.
Products equipped with a CO2 evaporator find many applications especially if we are mindful of caring for our environment by contributing to reducing the greenhouse effect, and at the same time we want an evaporator running on R744 to perform its role perfectly in the refrigeration system.
Our experts will help select the right solutions, products and accessories to support the operation of equipment in the field of refrigeration. A wide range of products are in stock (evaporators, condensers, fans) and ready to shipment.